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Environmental Technology Centre is a term commonly used to refer to the energy saving technique of reducing the electricity voltage supplied to a site, in order to reduce losses in the equipment, thereby reducing energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the electricity costs.
The lifetime of the equipment is also extended, because it generally runs cooler at the reduced voltage, with a consequent reduction in maintenance costs.Most electrical equipment is designed to operate louis vuitton travel bag amazon with voltages within the standardised levels (with an allowance of 4% for losses within the installation), so many items of equipment are supplied with a higher voltage than is required for satisfactory operation.Just as it was in 1960, the supply voltage to domestic properties in the UK is still nominally 240 V AC at 50 Hz, although the declared voltage in the UK is now 230V AC +10% to 6%. Historically the domestic voltage was 240 V +/ 6% (and 415V 3phase), whilst continental Europe was 220V (380V 3 phase). Since 1995 the nominal voltage across Europe has been 230V (400V 3 phase).In practice nothing has been changed in the UK. be between 225.6 to 254.5V.The second stage of European harmonisation was due to happen from 1st January 2003. to be between 207 to 253V. The second stage has still not been applied, as of April 2013. So the situation in the UK regarding supply voltage, stated in law is that it should be 230V 6% +10%.It is not unusual for the supply voltage to vary substantially throughout the day. The average voltage in the UK is around 242V. This means that in the majority of properties, electrical equipment is running at a voltage much higher than needed, resulting in excessive losses in many types of equipment. This is due, in a large part that due to the so called harmonisation of supply voltages in Europe all new low voltage appliances are designed to operate at 230V or even 220V. Therefore it can be seen that much equipment designed to be operated at 230V and 220V may be being supplied with a louis vuitton bags kuwait prices voltage above this if we consider that the UK average supply voltage is 242V, much higher than is needed.There are several ways of implementing voltage reduction on louis vuitton purses pink a site:This can be applied if the site has its own high, or medium voltage transformer, and if there are suitable tap settings on the transformer that allow the voltage to be reduced by the required amount. All that needs to be done is to shut off the supply for a few minutes louis vuitton large agenda refill 2013 while the tap setting on the transformer is changed.An obvious advantage of this approach is the very low cost involved. However, a significant disadvantage is the risk of the voltage on the site becoming too low if (or when) the voltage on the supply grid drops to a lower level.The taps of a supply transformer are usually set to allow for the variations in grid supply voltage, so that the site voltage is unlikely to vary outside of the 230V 10% range.These fixed ratio transformers typically have a number of tap settings, allowing the degree of voltage reduction to be set at the time of installation (or at the time of manufacture).A disadvantage of fixed ratio transformers is that as for supply transformer tap down the site is vulnerable to the grid voltage becoming too low.Voltage regulator (stabiliser or optimiser)Perhaps the best approach to implementing voltage reduction is to install a voltage regulator (also known as a voltage stabiliser or optimiser).This type of equipment will ensure that the voltage on the site is maintained at the desired level, irrespective of the changes in the grid supply voltage.Voltage regulators are more complex but usually no more expensive than fixed ratio voltage reduction transformers, however, they have two significant advantages in comparison to the fixed ratio type:Close control of the output voltage (typically to within 1%), coupled with the proper balancing of phase voltages, allows for overall greater voltage reduction giving higher energy savings and a lower total life cycle cost than typical of fixed ratio solutions. If the load is linear, a reduction in voltage from 240 to 230 will reduce the energy consumption by 8%, while a reduction to 220 Volts will yield a saving of 16%.Power consumption is calculated in Watts (W) where W = Volts2./Inpedance in Ohms.
However, voltage reduction does not work with all types of load. Variable speed inverter drives, high frequency lighting ballasts and switch mode power supplies for example will generally not yield significant savings at reduced voltage because the voltage fed to the load is generated electronically and is not affected by the supply voltage. Temperature controlled heating is another type of load where no energy saving will be obtained, as the heater will still need to consume the same amount of energy to perform its required function.
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